Writing styles

Listed below are some of the most common areas where paper writing styles may be employed and the rules for using four different methods: Turabian (5th edition; an adaptation of the Chicago Manual of Style [CMS]), MLA (Modern Language Association), APA (American Psychological Association), and LSA (Linguistic Society of America).
turabian 5th mla apa lsa
Page Numbering firstpage:center bottom;following pages:center toporupper right. upper right after last name [smith 7] upper right under short title upper right

indent paragraphs

6 to 8 spaces 5 spaces 5 spaces 6 spaces

first set of quotes

double quotes double quotes double quotes single quotes

second set of quotes (quotes within a quote)

single quotes single quotes single quotes double quotes


3 spaced dots, 4 after sentence 3 spaced dots, 4 after sentence 3 spaced dots, 4 after sentence 3 unspaced dots, 3 after sentence

type of reference

parenthetical: (author year, page).

footnotes or endnotes: raised number in text.
notes: raised number author[first last],title(city, state: publisher, year), page.

parenthetical: (author page). parenthetical: (author, year, p. page). parenthetical: (author year: page).

bibliography name

selected bibliography, works cited, sources consulted works cited, works consulted references, bibliography references

bibliography spacing

single (double between entries) double double double or single (double between entries)

reverse indent (on the bibliography)

5 spaces 5 spaces 3 spaces 4 or 5 spaces

order of book entry

parenthetical: author. year.title.city, state: publish.

footnotes: author.title.city, state: publish, year.

author.title.city, state: publish, year. author. (year).title.city, state: publish. author. year. title. city, state: publish.

additional works (in bibliography listings)

8 underlines 3 hyphens. repeat name 7 underlines

co-author name order

first last first last last, initials first last

book titles

parenthetical:sentence style.

footnotes:headline style.

headline style. sentence style. sentence style.

article titles

parenthetical: sentence style.

footnotes: headline style.

headline style. sentence style sentence style

journal titles

headline style. headline style. headline style. sentence style

indention on long quote

4 left; 0 right 10 left; 0 right 5 left; 0 right 4 left; 0 right

spacing of long quote

single double double double or single
Writing Style Comparision